AskDefine | Define astringent

Dictionary Definition

astringent adj
1 sour or bitter in taste [syn: acerb, acerbic, sharp]
2 tending to draw together or constrict soft organic tissue; "astringent cosmetic lotions" [ant: nonastringent] n : a drug that causes contraction of body tissues and canals [syn: astringent drug, styptic]

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Noun

  1. A substance which draws tissue together, thus restricting the flow of blood.

Adjective

  1. Sharp, caustic, severe.
  2. Having the effect of drawing tissue together; styptic.

Extensive Definition

An astringent (also spelled adstringent) substance is a chemical that tends to shrink or constrict body tissues, usually locally after topical medicinal application. The word "astringent" derives from Latin astringere, meaning "to bind fast". Two common examples are calamine lotion and witch hazel.
Astringency is also the dry, puckering mouthfeel caused by tannins found in many fruits such as blackthorn, bird cherry and persimmon fruits. The tannins denature the salivary proteins, causing a rough "sandpapery" sensation in the mouth. Astringency tastes unpleasant to many mammals (including humans), which tend to avoid eating astringent fruit; conversely, birds do not taste astringency and readily eat these fruit. It is thought that fruit astringency gives a selective advantage to some plant varieties because birds are better than mammals at long-distance seed dispersal, often flying a great distance before passing the seeds in their droppings.
Astringent substances are also found in some wines and teas. A small amount of astringency is expected in some wines, especially young red wines made from grapes such as cabernet sauvignon.
Astringent medicines cause shrinkage of mucous membranes or exposed tissues and are often used internally to check discharge of blood serum or mucous secretions. This can happen with a sore throat, hemorrhages, diarrhea, or with peptic ulcers. Externally applied astringents, which cause mild coagulation of skin proteins, dry, harden, and protect the skin. Acne sufferers are often advised to use astringents if they have oily skin. http://www.brown.edu/Student_Services/Health_Services/Health_Education/general_health/acne.htm Astringents also help heal stretch marks and other scars. Mild astringent solutions are used in the relief of such minor skin irritations as those resulting from superficial cuts, allergies, insect bites, or fungal infections such as athlete's foot.
Some common astringent agents include alum, oatmeal, yarrow, witch hazel, bayberry, very cold water, and rubbing alcohol. Astringent preparations include silver nitrate, zinc oxide, zinc sulfate, Burow's solution, tincture of benzoin, and vegetable substances such as tannic and gallic acids. Balaustines are the red rose-like flowers of the pomegranate, which are very bitter to the taste. In medicine, its dried form has been used as an astringent. Some metal salts and acids have also been used as astringents.
astringent in Catalan: Astringent
astringent in Czech: Adstringens
astringent in German: Adstringens
astringent in Spanish: Astringente
astringent in French: Astringence
astringent in Hebrew: עפיצות
astringent in Japanese: 収れん作用
astringent in Portuguese: Adstringência
astringent in Finnish: Adstringentti

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